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BOOK ONE.  (Psalms 1 to 41)

“I will praise YHWH, because of His righteousness,

And will sing praise to the Name of YHWH Most High.”

(Psalm 7:17)



Our text is coloured to highlight Deity, promises, blessings, prophecies, praise, salvation, judgment and emphasis.  This is to encourage an analytical eye while studying the psalms.



ORANGE for titles and attributes of God.    GREEN for beatitudes and promises.   BLUE for emphasis.    PURPLE for Messianic passages.   RED for salvation.    MAJENTA for praise & thanksgiving.    DARK BLUE for prophetic passages.    BROWN for warnings and judgments. 


Suggested memory verses - the number is indicated in red.

(YHWH may be pronounced as Yahweh)



Delight in the Torah of YHWH

This anonymous psalm stands as a faithful doorkeeper to the entire book of psalms. It reminds those who enter of the righteous behaviour and fruitful life that are characteristic of the one who delights in God’s Instructions,

in contrast to the life and destiny of the ungodly who will perish.


1   Blessed is the one who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked,

     or stand in the path of sinners, or sit in the seat of scoffers!

2   But his delight is in the Torah* of YHWH,

     and in His teaching he meditates day and night.

3   He is like a tree firmly planted by streams of water,

     which yields its fruit in season, and whose leaf does not wither;

     and whatever he does prospers.

4   The wicked are not so!

     Rather they are like chaff that the wind drives away.

5   Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment,

     nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous.

6   For YHWH knows the way of the righteous,

     but the way of the wicked will perish.   r


(* Torah has been traditionally translated as 'law.' But more correctly, it means 'teaching, instruction, direction.')





The Reign of the Messiah

The theme of this psalm is the supreme King (the Messiah). It unveils

the world rulers’ rebellion against YHWH and His Anointed King.

It also reveals God’s purpose to set His King on Mount Zion, and

exhorts the world rulers to submit to the Son to avoid His wrath.


1   ^Why do the nations rage, and the people devise a vain thing?

2   The kings of the earth take their stand, and the rulers take counsel together

     against YHWH and against His Anointed - His Messiah.^      [Acts 4:25-28]

3   “Let us break Their chains,” they say, “and throw off Their fetters!”

4   He who is sitting in the heavens laughs. The Lord scoffs at them.

5   Then He rebukes them in His anger and terrifies them in His fury, saying,

6   ^I, yes, I have installed My King on Zion, My holy hill.”^  [Heb.1:3. 8:1]

7   ^I will proclaim the decree: YHWH said to Me, ‘You are My Son

           Today I have begotten You -

           that is, I have established You in an official Sonship position.^  [Acts 13:33. Heb 1:5. 5:5]

8   ^Ask of Me, and I will give the nations as Your inheritance,

     And the very ends of the earth as Your possession.^  [Rev 11:15]

9   ^You will rule them with a sceptre of iron;*

     You will dash them to pieces like pottery’.”^  [Rev 2:27. 12:5. 19:15]

10  Now therefore, O kings, be wise! Be warned, you rulers of the earth.

11  Worship and serve YHWH with awe, and rejoice with trembling.

12  ^Kiss - do homage to the Son, lest He become angry,

     and you perish in the way, when His wrath is kindled just a little.

     How blessed are all who trust in, and take refuge in Him!^ [2 Thes 1:6-8]  r


     (* another reading is, "You shall break them with a rod of iron")





YHWH Our Shield

In this psalm David is encouraged by God’s protection in the face of Absalom’s rebellion. He praises Yahweh for deliverance, and seeks further victory.

A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son Absalom.


1   ^O YHWH, how My adversaries have increased!

     Many are rising up against Me!^ [Luke 22:66]

2   ^Many are saying of Me,

     ‘There is no deliverance for Him in God.’^  Selah.  [Luke 23:35]

3  But You are a shield around me, O YHWH,

    my Glory, and the One who lifts up my head.

4  I cried to YHWH with my voice,

    and He answered me from His holy Hill.   Selah

5  I lay down and slept; I awoke again, because YHWH sustained me.

6  I will not fear the tens of thousands of people

     who have set themselves against me on every side.

7  Arise, O YHWH! Save me, O my God – my Elohim!

    For You have smitten all my enemies on the jaw;

    You have shattered the teeth of the wicked.

8  Salvation comes from YHWH!

    Your blessing is upon Your people.   Selah    r





YHWH hears when I call to Him!

In this psalm of trust, David seeks God’s help. In spite of opposition,

he expresses his trust in Yahweh who gives him joy, peace and security.

A Psalm of David


1   Answer me when I call, O God (You who are) my righteousness!

    You have relieved me in my distress;

    Be gracious to me and hear my prayer.

2  How long, O sons of men, will you make my honour a reproach?

    How long will you love what is worthless and aim at deception?  Selah.

3  But know that YHWH has set apart the godly man for Himself;

    YHWH will hear when I call to Him.

4        In your anger, do not sin. Meditate in your heart when you are upon your bed, and be silent and still.  Selah.

5  Offer sacrifices of righteousness, and trust in YHWH.

6  Many are asking, "Who will show us any good?"

    Lift up the light of Your countenance upon us, O YHWH!

7  You have filled my heart with greater joy than when their grain and new wine      abound.

8   I will lie down and sleep in peace, for You alone, O YHWH,

    make me to dwell in safety.    r





YHWH blesses the righteous man

David describes God’s hatred of sin and asks God to guide him

in righteousness; and he rejoices in God’s protection and blessing.

A Psalm of David


1   Give ear to my words, O YHWH, consider my meditation and my groaning.

2   Listen to my cry for help, my King and my God, for to You I always pray.

3   In the morning, O YHWH, You hear my voice;

     in the morning I present myself to You, and I look up in eager expectation.

4   You are not a God who takes pleasure in wickedness.

     No evil can dwell with You,

5   and the arrogant cannot stand in Your Presence.

     You hate all workers of iniquity.

6   You destroy those who tell lies.

     YHWH abhors a man of blood and deceit!

7   But as for me, by Your great mercy, I will enter Your House.

     I bow myself in awe towards Your holy Sanctuary.

8   O YHWH, lead me in Your righteousness

     because of my enemies watching me;

     Make Your way straight before me.

9   There is nothing reliable in what they say;

     their heart is filled with destruction, their throat is an open grave,

     and they flatter with their tongue.

10 Declare them guilty, O God!  Let them fall by their own intrigues!

     Banish them because of their many transgressions,

     for they have rebelled against You.

11 But let all who take refuge in You rejoice.

     Let them ever sing for joy, because You spread Your protection over them.

     And let those who love Your Name rejoice in You.

12 For You bless the righteous, O YHWH;

     You surround him with favour as with a shield.    r





Prayer for Grace in Time of Trouble

David expresses his distress that God uses his adversaries to chasten him.

He prays for deliverance, laments his sufferings, and warns his enemies to depart, confident that Yahweh will answer his prayer.

A Psalm of David


1   O YHWH, do not rebuke me in Your anger,

     Or chasten me in Your wrath.

2   O YHWH, be gracious to me, for I am withering away;

     Heal me, O YHWH, for my bones are trembling,

3   And my soul is in anguish.

     But You! - O YHWH, how long?

4   Turn, O YHWH, deliver my soul;

     Save me because of Your unfailing love.

5   There is no remembrance of You in death;

     In Sheol* who will give thanks to You?

6   I am worn out from my groaning.

     All night long I flood my bed with weeping;

     I drench my couch with my tears.

7   My eyes waste away because of grief;

     They fail because of all my adversaries.

8   Depart from me, all you who do evil!

     For YHWH has heard my weeping;

9   YHWH has heard my supplication;

     YHWH accepts my prayer.

10 All my enemies will be ashamed and greatly dismayed.

     They will turn back in sudden disgrace.  r


     (* Sheol - the realm of the dead)





My Shield is with God who Saves

David confidently seeks Yahweh for deliverance.

He affirms his innocence and appeals to God to vindicate him from slander,

and to bring judgment on his enemies.

A Shiggaion (ecstatic song) of David,

which he sang to YHWH concerning Cush, a Benjamite.


1   O YHWH my God, in You have I taken refuge;

     Save and deliver me from all who pursue me,

2   lest they tear my soul like a lion,

     and rip it to pieces, with no-one to deliver me.

3   O YHWH my God, if I have done this:

     if there is injustice in my hands,

4   if I have rewarded evil to him who was at peace with me,

     or without cause have robbed my adversary,

5   then let the enemy pursue my soul and overtake it;

     Let him trample my life to the ground,

     and lay my glory in the dust. Selah.


6   Arise, O YHWH, in Your anger;

     Rise up against the rage of my enemies,

     Stir up for me the judgment You have decreed.

7   Let the assembly of the peoples gather around You;

     and for their sakes, return to rule over them from on high.

8   YHWH will judge the peoples!

     Vindicate me, O YHWH, according to my righteousness,                    

     according to my integrity within me.

9   O righteous God, who searches hearts and minds -

     bring to an end the violence of the wicked

     and make the righteous secure.   

10 My shield is God who saves the upright in heart.


11 God is a righteous Judge,

     a God who is angry with the wicked every day.

12 If a man does not repent, He will sharpen His sword;

     He has bent His bow and made it ready.

13 He has prepared His deadly weapons;

     He makes ready His flaming arrows.

14 Look how the wicked travails with wickedness,

     he conceives mischief, and brings forth falsehood.

15 He digs a pit and scoops it out,

     And then falls into the hole which he made.

16 His mischief will recoil upon himself,

     And his violence will come down upon his own head.

17 I will praise YHWH, because of His righteousness,

     And will sing praise to the Name of YHWH Most High.  r





God's Glory and Man's Dominion

David marvels at the majesty of Yahweh who uses infants to overthrow the mighty. He expresses wonder that God has entrusted His creation to the dominion of man.

A Psalm of David


1   O YHWH, our Lord,

     how excellent is Your Name in all the earth,

     You have displayed Your splendour above the heavens!

2   From the mouth of infants and babes

     You have     established strength,

     because of Your adversaries;

     to silence the enemy and the avenger.

3   When I consider Your heavens, the work of Your fingers,

     the moon and the stars, which You have set in place,

4   ^What is man that You are mindful of Him,

     and the Son of Man that You visit and inspect Him?

5   You have made Him a little lower than the angels of God,

     and have crowned Him with glory and honour!

6   You made Him rule over the works of Your hands;

     You put everything under His feet -^ [Heb.2:5-9. 1 Cor.15:27] -

7   all sheep and oxen, and also the beasts of the field,

8   the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea

     that move through the channels of the oceans.

9   O YHWH, our Lord,

     How excellent is Your Name in all the earth!   r





YHWH Judges in Righteousness

David praises Yahweh, the righteous Judge, for destroying the wicked.

He expresses his confidence that those who love the Name of Yahweh,

will not be forgotten or forsaken.

A Psalm of David


1   I confess and praise You, O YHWH, with all my heart;

     I declare all Your wonders.

2   I  rejoice and am glad in You;

     I will proclaim Your Name in song, O Elyon, Most High.

3   My enemies turn back;

     they stumble and perish before You,

4   for You have upheld my right and my cause.

     You sat on the throne judging righteously.

5   You have rebuked the nations,

     You have destroyed the wicked.

     You have blotted out their name for ever and ever.

6   O enemy! complete destruction has overtaken you forever!

     You, O YHWH, have uprooted their cities;

     even the memory of them has perished.


7   But YHWH abides for ever;

     He has established His throne for judgment;

8   He judges the world in righteousness;

     He governs the peoples with justice.

9   And YHWH is a Stronghold for the oppressed,

     a Refuge in times of trouble.

10 They who know Your Name will put their trust in You;

     For You, O YHWH, have never forsaken those who seek You.


11 Sing praises to YHWH, who dwells in Zion;

     Proclaim His deeds among the peoples.

12 For He who makes an inquest into the shedding of blood remembers them;

     He does not forget the cry of the afflicted.

13 Have mercy on me, O YHWH!

     See my affliction from those who hate me!

     You are the One who lifts me up from the gates of death

14 that I may tell of all Your praise

     in the gates of the Daughter of Zion.

     I rejoice in Your salvation.

15 The nations have fallen into the pit they have made;

     their own feet are caught in the net they have hidden.

16 YHWH is known by the judgment He executes.

     The wicked are ensnared by the work of their own hands.

          Higgaion (meditate). Selah.

17 The wicked will be turned into Sheol - into Hell,

     all the nations that forget God.

18 But the needy will not always be forgotten,

     nor the hope of the meek perish for ever.

19 Arise, O YHWH, do not let man triumph;

     let the nations be judged in Your Presence.

20 Strike them with fear, O YHWH;

     let the nations know that they are but men.  Selah.  r





YHWH is King Forever and Ever

The psalmist laments the ungodliness and unrighteousness of the wicked.

He petitions Yahweh to deliver the afflicted and destroy the wicked.

He expresses confidence that God will answer his prayer.


1   Why, O YHWH do You stand far off?

     Why do You hide Yourself in times of trouble?

2   In his arrogance the wicked hunt down the afflicted -

     let them be caught in the schemes they have devised.

3   For the wicked boasts of his heart's desire -

     He blesses the greedy and reviles YHWH.

4   The wicked, in his pride and haughtiness, does not seek Him.

     All his thoughts are, "There is no God,"

5   and his ways always seem to prosper.

     Your judgments are far above, out of his sight.

     As for all his adversaries, he sneers at them;

6   he says to himself, "I shall not be moved;

     I shall never be in adversity."

7   His mouth is full of curses, deceit and threats;

     mischief and wickedness are under his tongue.

8   He lies in wait near the villages;

     from ambush he murders the innocent.

     He watches stealthily for his victims;

9   he lies in wait like a lion under cover;

     he lies in wait to catch the afflicted;

     he catches the helpless and drags them off in his net.

10 He crouches, he lies low,

     that the unfortunate may fall under his great strength.

11 He says to himself, "God has forgotten;

     He covers His face; He will never see."


12 Arise, O YHWH!  Lift up Your hand, O God!

     Do not forget the afflicted!

13 Why does the wicked man revile God?

     He says to himself, "You will not call me to account."

14 But You have seen it, for You observe all trouble and grief

     to repay it by Your hand.

     The unfortunate commits himself to You;

     for You have been the Helper of the fatherless.

15     Break the arm of the wicked and evil man,

     Seek out his wickedness until You find none.


16 YHWH is King for ever and ever;

     The nations have perished from His land.

17 O YHWH, you have heard the desire of the humble;

     You have strengthened their heart,

     You have inclined Your ear to hear their cry;

18 to do justice to the fatherless and the oppressed,

     in order that man, who is of the earth, may terrify no more.     r





YHWH is Righteous. YHWH is a Refuge

In this song of trust, David, faced with the temptation to flee, expresses his faith

in Yahweh, who will destroy the wicked and deliver the righteous.

To the Chief Musician. A psalm of David.


1    In YHWH I have trusted;

      How do you say to my soul, "Flee as a bird to your mountain?"

2    For look! The wicked bend a bow,

      they set their arrow against the string,

      to shoot from the shadows at the upright in heart.

3    When the foundations are being destroyed, what can the righteous do?"

4    YHWH is in His holy temple; YHWH - His throne is in the heavens;

      He observes, and His eyes test the sons of men.

5    YHWH tests the righteous, but the wicked,

      and the one who loves violence, His soul hates.

6    He will rain fiery coals and burning sulphur upon the wicked;

      and a scorching wind will be the portion of their cup.

7    For YHWH is righteous; He loves righteousness.

      The upright will see His face.  r




YHWH will set the godly in safety

In this lament psalm, David contrasts the trouble caused by the wicked words

of evil men with his trust in the true words of Yahweh.

To the Chief Musician. On an eight-stringed harp.

A psalm of David


1    Save, O YHWH, for the godly ceases to be,

      for the faithful have vanished from among the sons of men.

2    Everyone speaks falsehood and vanity with his neighbour.

      They speak with flattering lips and a double heart.

3    YHWH will cut off all flattering lips,

      and every boastful tongue that speaks great things;

4    People who have said, "We will triumph with our tongues;

      Our lips are our own! Who is master over us?"
5    "Because of the oppression of the poor, because of the groaning of the needy,

      I will now arise," says YHWH; "I will set him in the safety for which he yearns."

6    The words of YHWH are pure words -

      like silver refined in a furnace of earth; purified seven times.

7    O YHWH, You will keep them;

      You will protect us from this generation for ever.

8    The wicked strut about on every side

      when what is vile is honoured among the sons of men.  r




Prayer for Help in Trouble

Here David laments his oppression by the enemy, petitions Yahweh to deliver him,

and confidently resolves to praise the LORD for that deliverance.

 A Psalm of David


1    How long, O YHWH? Will You forget me for ever?

      How long will You hide Your Face from me?

2    How long shall I take counsel in my soul,

      wrestling with my thoughts, and

      with sorrow in my heart every day?

      How long will my enemy be exalted over me?

3    Consider and answer me, O YHWH, my God;

      Give light to my eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death,

4    Lest my enemy say, 'I have overcome him,'

      and my adversaries rejoice when I am shaken.

5    But I have trusted in Your mercy and unfailing love.

      My heart rejoices in Your salvation.

6    I sing to YHWH,

      for He has dealt bountifully with mer




The Folly of the Wicked

David laments the moral foolishness and corruption of the whole human race

and longs for the establishment of the righteous Kingdom of Yahweh on earth.

(This psalm, with slight changes, is identical to Psalm 53)

 A Psalm of David


1    The fool has said in his heart, 'There is no God.'

      They have acted corruptly;

      they have committed vile deeds.

      There is no one who does good.

2    YHWH has looked down from heaven upon the sons of men,

      to see if there is a wise one, seeking God.

3    They have all turned aside;

      together they have become filthy.

      There is no one who does good, not even one.

4    Have all the workers of wickedness no knowledge,

      who eat up My people as they eat bread,

      and do not call upon YHWH?

5    There they are in great fear,

      for God is with the generation of the righteous.

6    You have shamed the counsel of the poor,

      but YHWH is his Refuge.

7    O that the salvation of Israel would come out of Zion!

      When YHWH turns back the captivity of His people,

      Jacob will rejoice, Israel will be gladr




Who may dwell in God’s Holy Place?

David describes the character of the person who qualifies to dwell in the Presence of God.

He describes the eleven-fold qualities of the righteous man who is upright

in deed, word, attitudes and finances.

A Psalm of David


1    YHWH, who is it that dwells in Your tent?

      Who is it that lives in Your holy hill?

2    He who walks with integrity, and does what is righteous,

      and speaks truth in his heart.

3    He who has not slandered with his tongue;

      he who has not done evil to his neighbour,

      nor taken up a reproach against his friend.

4    The one in whose eyes a reprobate is despised.

      One who esteems those standing in awe of YHWH.

      He who has sworn to his own hurt, and does not change.

      (He who has kept his oath even when it hurt).

5    He who has not put out his silver at usury - high interest,

      and has not taken a bribe against the innocent.

      He who does these righteous things will never be moved.  r                                                                                   



Fullness of Joy in the Presence of YHWH

David declares that as he has trusted Yahweh to be his portion in life,

so will he trust Him to preserve him in death. Verse 10 is a Messianic reference.

A Michtam (poem) of David


1    Keep and protect, O God, for I have trusted in You.

2    Oh my soul, You have said to YHWH, 'You are my Master;

      I have no good beside or beyond You.'

3    As for the holy ones who are on the earth,

      they are the excellent, the noble and glorious ones in   whom is all my delight.

4    The sorrows of those who hasten after another god are multiplied;

      Their drink offerings of blood I will not pour out

      nor will I take their names on my lips.

5    YHWH is the portion of my inheritance and my cup;

      You hold and maintain my lot.

6    Boundary lines have fallen for me in pleasant places;

      indeed, a delightful heritage is mine.


7    I will bless YHWH who has counselled me;

      indeed, my heart* instructs me in the night. (*lit. kidneys)

8    I have set YHWH always before me;

      because He is at my right hand, I am not shaken.

9    Therefore my heart is glad, and my esteem rejoices;

      my flesh also dwells in safety.

10  For You will not abandon my soul to Sheol*; (*the grave or place of the dead),

      neither will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption.

11  You make known to me the path of life.

      In Your presence is fullness of joy;

      at Your right hand are pleasures for ever.  r




Saviour of those who take Refuge at God’s Right Hand

In this prayer, David presents his credentials of uprightness,

and petitions Yahweh for protection from wicked men.

A Prayer of David


1    Hear righteousness - my righteous cause, O YHWH;

      listen to my cry;

      Give ear to my prayer that does not come from deceitful lips.

2    My sentence - my vindication- goes forth from Your presence.

      Your eyes see what is right.

3    You have probed my heart;

      You have examined me by night;

      You have tested me and have found nothing.

      I have purposed that my mouth will not transgress.

4    As for the deeds of men - by the word of Your lips

      I have observed and avoided the paths of the destroyer,

5    that my steps might hold fast to Your paths.

      My feet have not slipped.


6    I have called upon You, for You answer me, O God;

      Incline Your ear to me and hear my speech.

7      Wondrously display Your lovingkindness,

      O Saviour, by Your right Hand,

      save those who take refuge in You

      from those who rise up against them.

8    Keep me as the apple of the eye;

      Hide me in the shadow of Your wings,

9    from the wicked who ravage me;

      from my deadly enemies who surround me.

10  They have closed up their hearts;

      their mouths have spoken with arrogance.

11  They have now surrounded us in our tracks;

      they set their eyes to cast us to the ground.

12  He is like a lion that is eager to tear his prey,

      and as a young lion crouching under cover.


13  Arise, O YHWH, confront him, cause him to bend.

      Rescue my soul from the wicked by Your sword,

14  from such men by Your hand, O YHWH,

      and from men of the world whose portion is in this life,

      and whose belly you fill with Your hidden resources.

      They are satisfied with sons,

      and leave their abundance to their babes.

15  As for me, I shall see Your face in righteousness.

      When I awake I will be satisfied with Your likeness.  r




YHWH my Rock, my Fortress, my Deliverer

In this victory song, David tells of what Yahweh is to him,

and rehearses God’s deliverance and victory,

and resolves to sing praises to the Name of Yahweh.

To the Chief Musician.  A psalm of David the servant of YHWH

who spoke to YHWH the words of this song on the day YHWH delivered him

from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul. He said …


1    I love You, O YHWH, my Strength.

2    YHWH is my Rock and my Fortress and my Deliverer,

      My God, my Rock, in whom I take refuge and trust.

      He is my Shield and the Horn of my Salvation,                                                      

      my High Tower - my Stronghold.

3    I call upon YHWH the One who is to be praised,

      and I am saved from my enemies.


4    The cords of death were all around me,

      and the torrents of Beliya’al - of ungodliness - made me afraid.

5    The cords of Sheol surrounded me;

      the snares of death confronted me.

6    In my distress I called upon YHWH

      and to my Elohim I cried;

      from His sanctuary He heard my voice,

      and my cry came before Him, into His ears.


7    Then the earth shook and quaked;

      the foundations of the mountains trembled        

      and were shaken, because He was angry.

8    Smoke went up from His nostrils,

      and consuming fire from His mouth;

      coals were kindled by it.

9    He bowed the heavens, and came down

      with thick darkness under His feet.

10  And He rode upon a cherub and flew;

      He flew upon the wings of the wind.

11  He made darkness His secret place;

      His canopy around Him was darkness of waters,

      thick clouds of the skies.

12  From the brightness before Him,

      His thick clouds passed by with hail and coals of fire.

13  YHWH thundered in the heavens,

      and Elyon the Most High uttered His voice -

      hail and coals of fire.

14  And He sent out His arrows, and scattered them;

      and many bolts of lightning, and vanquished them.

15  Then the channels of water were seen,

      and the foundations of the world were uncovered,

      at Your rebuke, O YHWH,

      at the blast of the breath of Your nostrils.


16  He sent from on high, he took me;

      He drew me out of many waters.

17  He delivered me from my strong enemy,

      and from those who hated me;

      for they were stronger than I.

18  They confronted me in the day of my calamity,

      but YHWH was my Support.

19  He also brought me forth into a broad place;

      He rescued me, because He delighted in me.


20  YHWH has rewarded me according to my righteousness;

      according to the cleanness of my hands He has repaid me.

21  For I have kept the ways of YHWH,

      and have not acted wickedly against from my God.

22  For all His judgments are before me,

      and I have not turned away from His laws.

23  I was also blameless and upright before Him,

      and I kept myself from my iniquity.

24  And YHWH has recompensed me according to my righteousness;

      according to the cleanness of my hands in His eyes.


25  With the kind You show Yourself kind;

      with the blameless and upright You show Yourself perfect;

26  with the pure You show Yourself pure;

      and with the crooked You show Yourself obstinate.

27  For You save a poor, afflicted people;

      but bring down the haughty eyes.

28  For You Yourself light my lamp.

      YHWH my God turns my darkness into light.

29  For by You I run against a troop;

      and by my God I leap over a wall.


30  As for God, His way is perfect;

      the Word of YHWH is tested and proven.

      He is a Shield to all who trust and take refuge in Him.

31  For who is Eloah, besides YHWH?

      And who is a Rock, except our Elohim?

32  It is God who arms me with strength,

      and makes my way perfect.

33  He makes my feet like hinds' feet,

      and causes me to stand on my high places,

34  and trains my hands for battle;

      my arms can bend a bow of bronze.

35  You have also given me the Shield of Your Salvation,

      and Your right Hand upholds me;

      and Your lowliness - Your condescension makes me great.

36  You enlarge the path under me for my steps,

      and my ankles do not twist.


37  I pursue my enemies and overtake them,

      and do not turn back till they are destroyed.

38  I shatter them, and they are not able to rise.

      They fall under my feet.

39  For You gird me with strength for battle;

      You cause my adversaries to bow in subjection under me.

40  You have given me the necks of my enemies;

      and as for those who hate me, I cut them off.

41  They cried out, but there is no one to save;

      to YHWH, but He does not answer them.

42  I beat them as fine as dust before the wind;

      I cast them out as slime in the streets.


43  You deliver me from the contentions of the people;

      You have placed me as a head of nations;

      a people whom I have not known serve me.

44  As soon as they hear, they obey me;

      foreigners show submission to me.

45      Foreigners fade away,

      and come trembling from their hideouts.


46  YHWH lives! Blessed is my Rock,

      and exalted is the God of my salvation.

47  It is God who executes vengeance for me,

      and He subdues the peoples under me,

48  He delivers me from my enemies.

      You lift me up above my opponents;

      You rescue me from the violent man.

49  Therefore I will give thanks to You, O YHWH, among the nations,

      and I will sing praises to Your Name.

50  He gives great deliverance to His king,

      and shows lovingkindness to His anointed,

      to David, and to his descendants forever.  r




The Works and Torah of YHWH

In this psalm of praise, David reflects n the Glory of God in natural revelation

and the Glory of the Torah (instructions) as God’s special revelation

which alone meets man’s spiritual needs.

A Psalm of David


1    The heavens are proclaiming the glory of God;

      and the vast expanse of the sky declares the work of His hands.

2    Day to day they pour forth speech,

      and night to night they display knowledge.

3    There is no audible speech, nor are there words;

      their voice is not heard.

4    Yet their line - their testimony - has gone out into all the earth,

      and their silent utterances to the end of the world.

      In them He set up a tent for the sun,

5    which is like a bridegroom coming out of his room.

      It rejoices like a strong man set to run his course.

6    Its rising is from one end of the heavens,

      and its circuit is to the other end of them,

      and nothing is hidden from its heat.


7    The Torah (teaching) of YHWH is perfect, restoring the soul.

      The testimony of YHWH is sure, making wise the simple.

8    The precepts of YHWH are right, rejoicing the heart.

      The commandment of YHWH is pure, enlightening the eyes.

9    The fear of YHWH is pure, enduring for ever.

      The judgments of YHWH are true, and altogether righteous.

10  They are more precious than gold, yes, than much pure gold;

      they are sweeter than honey, even honey from the comb.

11      Moreover, by them Your servant is warned and instructed;

      in keeping them there is great reward.


12  Who can discern his errors?

      Acquit and declare me innocent of secret faults.

13  Keep Your servant also from presumptuous ones.

      from presumptuous, arrogant, compulsive, careless sins.

      Let them not rule over me;

      then I shall be complete - blameless and perfect,

      and innocent of great transgression.

14  Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart

      be pleasing in Your sight, O YHWH,

      my Rock and my Redeemer.  r




Victory in the Name of YHWH our God

David relays the people’s prayer for his victory in battle,

rehearses his own trust in God for victory,

and reiterates the people’s prayer to Yahweh, their King.

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David


1    YHWH answers you in the day of trouble!

      The Name of the God of Jacob sets you securely on high!

2    He sends you help from the sanctuary,

      and supports you from Zion!

3    He remembers all your offerings,

      and accepts your burnt offerings!   Selah.

4    He gives you your heart's desire,

      and fulfils all your plans!

5    We sing for joy over your salvation and victory,

      and in the Name of our God we set up a banner.

      YHWH fulfils all your petitions.


6    Now I know that YHWH saves His anointed;

      He answers him from His holy heavens,

      with the saving strength of His Right Hand.

7    Some talk about and boast, and trust in chariots,

      and some talk about and trust in horses,

      but we will talk about* and trust in the Name of YHWH,

      our Elohim.                                         (* lit. make mention)

8    They, yes they have bowed down and fallen,

      but we have risen and stand upright!

9    O YHWH, save the king!

      He will answer us in the day we callr




The Deliverance of YHWH

David acknowledges that Yahweh has established his kingdom,

and anticipates God’s dealing with His enemies.

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David


1    O YHWH, the king rejoices in Your strength,

      and how greatly he rejoices in Your salvation*!

2    You have given him the desire of his heart,

      and You have not withheld the request of his lips. Selah.

3    For You put before him blessings of Your goodness;

      You set a crown of pure gold on his head.

4    He asked You for life, and You gave it to him -      

      length of days for ever and ever.

5    His honour is great through Your salvation*;  (* yeshuah)

      splendour and majesty You place upon him.

6    For You bless and make him a blessing forever;

      You cause him to rejoice with great joy by Your Presence.


7    For the king is trusting in YHWH,

      and through the lovingkindness of ELYON, the Most High,

      he is not moved or shaken.

8    Your hand reaches all Your enemies;

      Your right hand finds out those who hate You.

9    You will make them like a fiery furnace in the time of Your Presence.

      YHWH will swallow them up in His wrath,

      and fire will devour them.

10  You will destroy their fruit - their offspring - from the earth,

      and their descendants from among the sons of men,

11  for they planned evil against You.

      They devised a wicked plot, but they cannot succeed,

12  for You make them turn their back;

      when You aim Your bowstrings at their faces.

13  Be exalted, O YHWH, in Your strength.

      We sing and praise Your mighty power.  r]




Rejection and Anguish - and a Song of Praise

David expresses his trust in God in spite of his apparent rejection by God and by men.

He calls for God’s help and deliverance in the face of attacks by his enemies.

He resolves to praise God and exhorts others to do likewise,

and concludes with a prophecy about the Millennial Kingdom.

The psalm is about more than David’s experience.

This is a major Messianic prophecy about the suffering of the Messiah.

A Psalm of David


1    ^El-i, El-i,* why have You forsaken Me?   *(My God, My God)

      Why are You so far from saving Me,

      and from the words of My groaning?  [Matt.27:46]

2    O My God, I cry by day, but You do not answer;

      and by night, but there is no silence - no rest for Me.

3    You are holy; enthroned on the praises of Your people Israel.

4    Our fathers trusted in You.

      They trusted, and You delivered them.

5    They cried out to You, and were delivered.

      They trusted in You, and were not ashamed or disappointed.


6    But I am a worm, and not a man,

      a reproach of men, and despised by the people.

7    All who see Me, mock Me;

      they grimace and shake the head, saying,  [Matt. 27:39]

8    'Cast yourself on YHWH! Let Him deliver Him!

      Let Him rescue Him, since He has delighted in Him.'  [Matt. 27:43]

9    Yet You are the One who brought Me out of the womb;

      causing Me to trust while upon My mother's breasts.

10  I was cast upon You from birth.

      You have been My God from My mother's womb.


11  Do not be far from Me, for trouble is near;

      for there is no one to help.   [Matt. 26:56]

12  Many bulls have surrounded Me;

      mighty ones of Bashan have encircled Me.

13  They have opened their mouths wide against Me,

      as a ravening and roaring lion.  [Matt. 27:40-44]

14  I am poured out like water, all My bones are out of joint [John 19:17-18]

      My heart has become like wax;       it has melted within Me.

15  My strength is dried up like a piece of broken pottery,

      and My tongue sticks to My jaws;   [John 19:28]

      and You are bringing Me to the dust of death.


16  For dogs have surrounded Me;

      a band of evildoers has encircled Me.

      They pierced My hands and My feet. [John 20:25]

17  I can count all My bones.

      They look, they stare at Me.  [John 19:37]

18  They divide My garments among them,

      and for My clothing they cast lots.  [Matt.27:35]

19  But You, O YHWH, do not be far off;

      O My Strength, hasten to help Me!

20  Deliver My soul from the sword,

      My only one - my precious life - from the paws of the dog.

21  Save Me from the lion's mouth; and from the horns of the wild beasts.


      You have answered Me!

22  I will declare Your Name to My brethren.  [Heb. 2:12]

      In the midst of the assembly I will praise You.

22  You who revere YHWH, praise Him;

      all you descendants of Jacob, glorify Him,

      and stand in awe of Him, all you seed of Israel.

24  For He has not despised nor abhorred the suffering of the afflicted;

      neither has He hidden His Face from Him.  [Heb. 5:7]

      But when He cried to Him, He heard.

25  My praise is of You in the great assembly;

      I will fulfil My vows before those who stand in awe of Him.

26  The meek will eat and be satisfied.

      Those who seek Him will praise YHWH.

      Your heart will live forever!


27  All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to YHWH,

      and all the families of the nations will bow down before You.

28  For the kingdom belongs to YHWH,

      and He is ruling over the nations.

29  All the fat ones of the earth - the healthy - have eaten,                                           

      and bow themselves in worship.

      All who go down to the dust bow before Him,

      even he who cannot keep his soul alive.

30  A seed will serve Him.

      It will tell of YHWH to the next generation.

31  They will come and will declare His righteousness

      to a people yet to be born, that He has done it.^   r





In this song of confidence, David pictures Yahweh as the Great Shepherd

who provides for and protects His sheep, and as the gracious Host

who protects and provides abundantly for His guests.

A Psalm of David


1    YHWH is my Shepherd, I shall not be in want.

2    He makes me to lie down in green pastures;

      He leads me beside quiet waters.

3    He restores my soul.

      He guides me in paths of righteousness

      for His Name's sake.

4    Yes, when I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,

      I fear no evil; for You are with me;

      Your rod and Your staff, they comfort me.

5    You prepare a table before me in the face of my enemies;

      You have anointed my head with oil.

      My cup is full and running over.

6    Only goodness and lovingkindness follow me

      all the days of my life,

      and I will dwell in the House of YHWH foreverr




YHWH of Hosts - the King of Glory

This psalm begins with a hymn of praise to Yahweh, the Owner and

Creator of the whole earth. David instructs worshippers,

and concludes with an anthem to the King of Glory.

A Psalm of David


1    The earth belongs to YHWH, and all that fills it;

      The world, and those who inhabit it.

2    For He has founded it upon the seas,

      and established it upon the floods of waters.

3    Who may ascend into the Mountain of YHWH?

      And who may stand in His Holy Place?

4    He who has clean hands and a pure heart,

      who has not lifted up his soul to vanity and falsehood,

      nor sworn deceitfully.

5    He shall receive blessing from YHWH

      and righteousness from the God of his salvation.

6    This is Jacob, the generation of those who seek Him,

      who seek Your Face.  Selah.


7    Lift up your heads, O you gates,

      and be lifted up, you everlasting doors,

      and the King of Glory will come in!

8    Who is this King of Glory?

      YHWH strong and mighty,

      YHWH mighty in battle.

9    Lift up your heads, O you gates,

      and lift them up, O everlasting doors,

      and the King of Glory will come in!

10  Who is this King of Glory?

      YHWH of Hosts,

      He is the King of Glory. Selah.   r




The Ways of YHWH

David petitions Yahweh for protection, guidance and pardon;

describes attributes of God,, and prays for deliverance.

A Psalm of David


1    To You, O YHWH, I lift up my soul.

2    O my Elohim, my God, I have put my trust in You;

      do not let me be ashamed;

      do not let my enemies triumph over me.

3    Indeed, let no one who waits on You be ashamed.

      Let those who deal treacherously without cause be ashamed.

4    Cause me to know Your ways, O YHWH;

      teach me Your paths.

5    Lead me in Your truth and teach me,

      for You are the God of my salvation;

      on You I wait all the day.


6      Remember, O YHWH, Your compassion and Your lovingkindness,

      for they are everlasting.

7    Do not remember the sins of my youth and my transgressions;

      according to Your lovingkindness remember me,

      for Your goodness' sake, O YHWH.

8    Good and upright is YHWH;

      therefore He instructs sinners in the way.

9    He guides the humble in justice,

      and He teaches the humble His way.

10  All the paths of YHWH are lovingkindness and truth

      to those who keep His covenant and His testimonies.


11  For Your Name's sake, O YHWH,

      pardon my iniquity, for it is great.

12  Who is the man who fears YHWH?

      He instructs him in the way he should choose.

13  His soul dwells in prosperity,

      and his descendants inherit the land.

14  The secret of YHWH is with those who fear Him,

      and He makes them know His covenant.

15  My eyes are continually toward YHWH,

      for He will release my feet from the net.

16  Turn Your face to me and be gracious to me,

      for I am lonely and afflicted.


17  The troubles of my heart have multiplied;

      oh, bring me out of my distresses!

18  Look on my affliction and my misery,

      and forgive all my sins.

19  See my enemies, for they are many;

      and they hate me with violent hatred.

20  Oh, guard my soul and deliver me;

      do not let me be ashamed, for I have taken refuge in You.

21  Let integrity and uprightness preserve me,

      for I have waited on You.

22  Redeem Israel, O God, from all his troubles.  r     




Trusting in YHWH Who Vindicates

David seeks divine vindication,

and petitions God to deliver him from the fate of the wicked.

A Psalm of David


1    Vindicate me, O YHWH, for I have walked in my integrity;

      and I have trusted in YHWH, without wavering.

2    Examine me, O YHWH, and prove me,

      try my kidneys and my heart - my innermost being.

3    For Your lovingkindness is before my eyes,

      and I have walked in Your truth.

4    I have not sat with deceitful men,

      nor will I enter with hypocrites.

5    I have hated the assembly of evildoers,

      and I do not sit with the wicked.

6    I wash my hands in innocence,

      and I will go around Your altar, O YHWH,

7    to raise a voice of thanksgiving,

      and to declare all Your wonders.

8    O YHWH, I have loved the habitation of Your house,

      and the place where Your glory dwells.

9    Do no gather my soul together with sinners,

      nor my life with men of blood,

10  in whose hands is a wicked scheme,

      and whose right hand is full of bribes.

11  But as for me, I walk in my integrity;

      Redeem me, and be gracious to me.

12  My foot stands on level ground;

      in the assemblies I will bless YHWHr





YHWH My Stronghold

David praises God, expressing his confidence in Yahweh.

He prays for continued victory.

A Psalm of David


1    YHWH is my Light and my Salvation;

      whom shall I fear?

      YHWH is the Refuge - the Stronghold of my life;

      of whom shall I be afraid?

2    When evildoers - my adversaries and my enemies -

      come against me to devour my flesh,

      they will stumble and fall.

3    Though an army encamp against me,

      my heart will not fear.

      Though war should break out against me,   

      yet in this I shall be confident.

4    One thing I have asked of YHWH, and this I seek -

      that I may dwell in the House of YHWH

      all the days of my life,

      to gaze upon the beauty of YHWH,

      and to inquire and meditate in His Sanctuary.

5    For in the day of evil He hides me in His Shelter;

      In the Secret Place of His Tent He hides me;

      He sets me high upon a Rock.          

6    And now my head is lifted up above my enemies all around me;

      and I offer in His Tent, sacrifices of joyful shouting;

      I will sing, yes, I will sing praises to YHWH.

7    Hear, O YHWH, when I call with my voice,

      Be gracious to me and answer me.

8    When You said, 'Seek My Face,' my heart said to You,

      'Your Face, O YHWH, I will seek.'

9    Do not hide Your Face from me,

      Do not turn Your servant away in anger.

      You have been my Help.

      Do not abandon me nor forsake me,

      O God of my salvation!

10 When my father and my mother forsake me,

      then YHWH will take me up.

11  Teach me Your way, O YHWH,

      and lead me in an upright path, because of my enemies.

12  Do not deliver me over to the desire of my adversaries;

      for false witnesses have arisen against me,

      and they breathe out violence to me.

13  I would have despaired unless I had believed

      that I would see the goodness of YHWH

      in the land of the living.

14  Wait for YHWH!

      Be strong, and let your heart take courage.

      Yes, wait for YHWH!  r




YHWH, the Stronghold of the Anointed

David petitions Yahweh to deliver him, and to repay his enemies.

He expresses his assurance that his prayer has been answered,

and then rejoices and prays for God’s people.

A Psalm of David


1    To You, O YHWH my Rock, I call;

      do not be deaf to me,

      for if You are silent to me,

      I will be like those who are going down to the pit.

2    Hear the voice of my supplications when I cry to You,

      when I lift up my hands toward Your holy oracle -

      the Sanctuary from where You speak Your holy words.

3    Do not drag me away with the wicked

      and with the workers of wickedness;

      who speak peace to their neighbours,

      while evil is in their hearts.

4    Give to them according to their practice

      and according to the evil of their deeds.

      Give to them according to the work of their hands.

      Render to them what they deserve.

5    Because they do not regard the deeds of YHWH

      nor the work of His hands,

      He throws them down and does not build them up.

6    Blessed is YHWH,

      for He has heard the voice of my supplication.

7    YHWH is my Strength and my Shield;

      my heart has trusted in Him, and I have been helped;

      therefore my heart exults,

      and with my song I thank Him.

8    YHWH is their Strength;

      yes, He is the Stronghold of Salvation to His anointed.

9    Save Your people, and bless Your inheritance.

      Feed and shepherd them, and carry and bear them up forever.   r




The Voice of YHWH

David ascribes glory to the omnipotent YHWH who controls and reveals Himself

in nature, and who blesses His people with strength and peace. 

The Name of Yahweh occurs 18 times in this short psalm.

A Psalm of David


1    Ascribe to YHWH, O you sons of the mighty,

      Ascribe to YHWH honour and strength.

2    Ascribe to YHWH the honour of His Name;

      Bow down and worship YHWH

      in the splendour and beauty of His holiness.

3    The voice of YHWH is over the waters;

      The God of glory thunders,

      YHWH is over many waters.

4    The Voice of YHWH is powerful,

      the Voice of YHWH is majestic.

5    The Voice of YHWH is breaking the cedars.

      Yes, YHWH breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon.

6    He makes them skip like a calf;

      Lebanon and Sirion (Mt Hermon) like a young wild ox.

7    The Voice of YHWH hews out flames of fire.

8    The Voice of YHWH shakes the wilderness;

      YHWH shakes the wilderness of Kadesh.

9    The Voice of YHWH makes the deer give birth,

      and strips the forests bare.

      And in His sanctuary everyone says, "Glory!"

10  YHWH sat enthroned over the Flood;

      Yes, YHWH sits as King forever.

11  YHWH gives strength to His people;

      YHWH blesses His people with peace.   r




YHWH Clothes With Gladness

David acknowledges God’s deliverance, and calls on the people to sing praises to Yahweh.

He remembers his past time of mourning and praises God for the joy he has now received.

A Song at the dedication of the House (the site of the future temple - 1 Chron 21:26, 22:1)

A Psalm of David


1    I exalt You, O YHWH, for You have lifted me up,

      and have not let my enemies rejoice over me.

2    YHWH my God, I cried out to You,

      and You have healed me.

3    YHWH, You have brought my soul up from Sheol;

      You have kept me alive,

      that I should not go down to the pit.

4    Sing praise to YHWH, you His devout, godly people,

      and give thanks at the remembrance of His holiness.

5    For His anger is but for a moment;

      His favour is for a lifetime.

      Weeping may last for the night,

      but joy comes in the morning.

6    Now as for me, when I felt secure, I said,

      'I will never be shaken.'

7    O YHWH, by Your favour

      You have made my mountain to stand firm and strong;

      You hid Your Face, and I was troubled.

8    To You, O YHWH, I call,

      and to YHWH I make supplication:

9    What profit is there in my blood,

      in my going down to the pit and corruption?

      Will the dust praise You? Will it declare Your truth?

10  Hear, O YHWH, have mercy and be gracious to me;

      O YHWH, be my Helper.    

11  You have turned my mourning into dancing for me,

      You have torn off my sackcloth and clothed me with gladness and joy;

12  that my honour and glory - everything within me,

      may sing praise to You, and not be silent.

      O YHWH my Elohim, I give thanks to You forever r




YHWH is My Strength

David laments his distress and danger and asks God to deliver him,

and to silence his enemies. He praises the LORD for delivering His people;

and encourages the godly ones to be strong.

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David


1    In You, O YHWH, I have trusted;

      let me never be ashamed.

      Deliver me in Your righteousness.

2    Incline Your ear to me, rescue me quickly.

      Be a Rock of strength to me,

      a strong Fortress to save me.

3    For You are my Rock and my Stronghold;

      therefore, for Your Name's sake lead me and guide me.

4    Pull me out of the net which they have secretly laid for me;

      for You are my Strength.

5    ^Into Your hand I commit My spirit.^ [Lk 23:46].

      You have redeemed me, O YHWH, God of truth.

6    I have hated those who regard vain idols;

      but as for me, I confidently trust in YHWH.

7    I rejoice and am glad in Your lovingkindness,

      for You have seen my affliction;

      You have known the anquish of my soul,

8    and You have not given me over into the hand of the enemy.

      You have set my feet in a wide place.

9    Be gracious to me, O YHWH, for I am in distress.

      My eye, my soul and my body have become old with grief.

10  For my life is consumed with sorrow,

      and my years in sighing.

      My strength has failed because of my iniquity,

      and my bones have wasted away.

11  I am a reproach among all my enemies,        

      and very much so to my neighbours.

      I am a horror to my acquaintances;

      those who see me outside in the street flee from me.

12  I have been forgotten like a dead man -

      out of sight and out of mind.

      I am like a missing and perishing vessel.

13  For I have heard the slander of man;

      and there's fear on every side;

      in uniting together against me,

      they scheme to take my life.

14  But as for me, I have put my trust in You, O YHWH,

      I have said, 'You are my God.'

15  My times are in Your Hand.

      Deliver me from the hand of my enemies,

      and from those who pursue me.

16  Cause Your Face to shine upon Your servant;

      save me in Your lovingkindness.

17  Do not let me be ashamed, O YHWH,

      for I have called upon You.

      Let the wicked be put to shame,

      let them be silenced in Sheol.

18  Let the lying lips become dumb,

      which speak arrogantly against the righteous,

      with pride and contempt.

19  Oh, how great is Your goodness,

      which You have stored up for those who fear You;

      which You have prepared for those who trust in You,

      in the sight of the sons of men!

20  You hide them in the secrecy of Your Presence

      from the conspiracies of men;

      You keep them in a shelter from the strife of tongues.

21  Baruch YHWH! - Blessed is YHWH!

      For He has shown His marvellous kindness to me in a fortified city.

22  As for me, I said in my haste and alarm,

      I am cut off from before Your sight;

      nevertheless You heard my voice when I prayed and cried out to You.

23  Oh, love YHWH, all you His devout, godly people!

      YHWH preserves the faithful,

      but the proud and haughty He pays back in full.

24  Be strong, all you who are waiting for YHWH

      and He will strengthen your heart.  r




YHWH Forgives Sin

David describes the blessing of forgiveness that follows chastening and confession.

God is now his Hiding Place, and gives him songs of deliverance.

A Psalm of David.

A Maskil (a contemplative, skilful, or instructive Psalm)


1    How blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven,

      whose sin is covered.

2    How blessed is the man to whom YHWH does not impute iniquity,

      and in whose spirit there is no deceit!

3    When I kept silent about my sin, my body wasted away

      through my groaning all day long.

4    For day and night Your Hand was heavy upon me;

      my vitality was turned into the droughts of summer. Selah.

5    I acknowledged my sin to You,

      and I did not cover up my iniquity.

      I said, 'I will confess my transgressions to YHWH;

      and You, yes, You forgave the guilt and iniquity of my sin.  Selah.

6    Therefore, let everyone who is godly pray to You

      in a time when You may be found;

      surely in a flood of great waters they will not reach him.

7    You are my Hiding Place; You preserve me from trouble;

      You surround me with songs of deliverance. Selah.

8    I will instruct you and teach you in the way you should go;

      I will counsel and guide you with My eye upon you.

9    Do not be like the horse or like the mule which lack understanding,

      and which must be harnessed with bit and bridle to hold them in check,

      or else they will not keep near you.

10  Many are the sorrows of the wicked;

      but lovingkindness surrounds the one who trusts in YHWH.

11  Be glad in YHWH and rejoice you righteous,

      and sing joyfully all you who are upright in heartr




Blessed is the Nation whose God is YHWH

The anonymous psalmist calls on the righteous to praise Yahweh

because of His dependability as Ruler and Judge.


1    Sing joyfully in YHWH, you righteous!

      Praise is most appropriate for the upright.

2    Give thanks to YHWH with the harp;

      sing praises to Him with an instrument of ten strings.

3    Sing to Him a new song;

      play skilfully with a shout of joy.

4    For the Word of YHWH is right and straight;

      and all His work is done in faithfulness.

5    He loves righteousness and justice;

      the earth is full of the lovingkindness of YHWH.

6    By the Word of YHWH the heavens were made,

      and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth.

7    He gathers the waters of the sea together as a heap;

      and lays up the oceans' depths in treasuries.

8    Let all the earth fear YHWH;

      let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him.

9    For He spoke, and it came to be;

      He commanded, and it stood fast.

10  YHWH brings the counsel of the nations to nothing;

      He frustrates the plans of the peoples.

11  The counsel of YHWH stands forever,

      the purposes of His heart to all generations.

12  Blessed is the nation whose God is YHWH,

      and the people He chose for His own inheritance.

13  YHWH has looked down from the heavens;

      He has seen all the sons of men.

14  From His dwelling-place He looks

      on all the inhabitants of the earth -

15  He who is fashioning the hearts of them all,

      who is considering all their works.

16  The king is not saved by the great size of an army;

      a mighty man is not delivered by his great power.

17  A horse is a false hope for safety;

      and it does not deliver anyone by its great strength.

18  Look! The eye of YHWH is on those who stand in awe of Him,

      on those who are waiting for His lovingkindness;

19  to deliver their soul from death,

      and to keep them alive in famine.

20  Our soul has waited for YHWH;

      He is our Help and our Shield.

21  For our heart rejoices in Him,

      because we have trusted in His holy Name.

22  Let Your lovingkindness, O YHWH, be upon us,

      for we have waited for You.  r




YHWH My Deliverer and Provider

A song of thanksgiving for deliverance of God’s goodness to His people.

A Psalm of David when he feigned madness before Abimelech (Achish),

who drove him out, and he departed. [1 Samuel 21:10-15]


1    I bless YHWH at all times;

      His praise is continually in my mouth.

2    My soul makes its boast in YHWH;

      Let the humble hear and rejoice.

3    Oh magnify YHWH with me,

      and let us exalt His Name together.

4    I sought YHWH, and He answered me,

      and delivered me from all my fears.

5    They looked to Him, and were enlightened,

      and their faces were not ashamed.

6    This poor man cried out and YHWH heard him

      and saved him out of all his troubles.

7    The Angel of YHWH encamps all around those who fear Him,

      and rescues them.

8    O taste and see that YHWH is good.

      How blessed is the man who trusts in Him!

9    Fear YHWH, all you His set-apart people;

      for there is no lack for those who fear Him.

10 The young lions lack and are hungry;

      but those who seek YHWH shall not lack any good thing.

11  Come, you children, listen to me;

      I will teach you the fear - the reverential awe of YHWH.

12  Who is the man who desires life,

      and loves days in order to see good?  

13  Keep your tongue from evil,

      and your lips from speaking deceit.

14  Turn away from evil, and do good;

      Seek peace, and pursue it.

15  The eyes of YHWH are on the righteous,

      and His ears are attentive to their cry.

16  The Face of YHWH is against evildoers,

      to cut off the memory of them from the earth.

17  The righteous cry out, and YHWH hears,

      and delivers them out of all their troubles.     

18  YHWH is near to the broken-hearted,

      and saves those who are crushed in spirit.

19  Many are the evils that confront the righteous;

      but YHWH delivers him from them all.

20  ^He keeps and protects all His bones;

      not one of them is broken.^  [John 19:33]

21  Evil slays the wicked;

      and those who hate the righteous are held guilty.

22  YHWH redeems the soul of His servants;

      and none of those trusting in Him will be held guilty.   r  




YHWH be Magnified!  A Prayer For Vindication

David laments the unjust hatred of his enemies. He prays for deliverance,

and for the destruction of his enemies.

A Psalm of David


1    Contend, O YHWH, with those who contend with me;

      fight against those who fight against me.

2    Take hold of Your shield and armour,

      and rise up to help me.

3    Draw also the spear and javelin to meet those who pursue me.

      Say to my soul, "I am your Salvation."

4    Let those who are seeking my life

      be ashamed and dishonoured.

      Let those who are plotting evil against me,

      be turned back in confusion.

5    Let them be as chaff before the wind,

      with the Angel of YHWH driving them away.

6    Let their way be dark and slippery,

      with the Angel of YHWH pursuing them.

7    For without cause they hid their net for me;

      without cause they dug a pit for my soul.

8    Let destruction come upon him unawares;

      and let the net that he has hidden catch himself;

      let him fall into it, to his ruin.

9    And my soul shall be joyful in YHWH;

      it shall rejoice in His salvation.

10  All my bones will say, "YHWH, who is like You,

      who delivers the poor from the one who is stronger than himself,

      and the poor and needy from him who robs him?"

11  Violent and ruthless witnesses rise up;

      they question me on things I know nothing about.

12  They reward me evil for good,

      to the deep sorrow of my soul.

13  But as for me, when they were sick,

      I put on sackcloth;

      I humbled my soul with fastings;

      and my prayer kept returning to my heart.

14  I went about as though it were a friend or my brother;

      I bowed down with grief, as one who mourns for his mother.

15  But they rejoiced at my stumbling, and gathered together;

      Attackers were gathered together against me of whom I was unaware;

      they tore at me and slandered me without ceasing.

16  Like profane jesters at a feast,

      they have been gnashing at me with their teeth.

17  YHWH, how long will You look on?

      Rescue my soul from their ravages,

      my only life from the young lions.

18  I will give You thanks in the great assembly;

      I will praise You among a mighty people.

19  Do not let my enemies rejoice over me with all their falsehood;

      neither let those who hate me without cause wink their eyes.

20  For they do not speak peace,

      but they devise deceitful words against those who are quiet in the land.

21  They also opened their mouth wide against me;

      they said, "Aha, aha, our eyes have seen it."

22  You have seen this, O YHWH; do not be silent;

      O YHWH, do not be far from me.

23  Stir up Yourself, and awake to my right judgment - my just defence,

      and to my cause, my God and my Master.

24  Vindicate me, O YHWH, my Elohim, according to Your righteousness;

      and do not let them rejoice over me.

25  Do not let them say in their hearts, "Aha, our desire is fulfilled!"

      Do not let them say, "We have swallowed him up!"

26  Let those who are rejoicing at my distress be ashamed and humiliated altogether;

      let those who are magnifying themselves over me be clothed with shame and confusion.

27  Let those who favour my vindication sing and rejoice;

      and let them say continually, "YHWH is magnified,

      who desires the peace of His servant."

28  And so my tongue shall declare Your righteousness

      and Your praise, all day long.   r




In the Shadow of His Wings

David describes the evil schemes of wicked men,

but praises the attributes of God working on behalf of His people.

To the Chief Musician

A Psalm of David the servant of YHWH


1    An oracle is within my heart

      concerning the transgression of the wicked.

      There is no fear of God before his eyes,

2    for he flatters himself in his own eyes too much

      to realize his iniquity is hateful.

3    The words of his mouth are wickedness and deceit;

      He has ceased to be wise and to do good.

4    He plans wickedness upon his bed;

      he sets himself in a way that is not good;

      he does not despise evil.

5    Your lovingkindness, O YHWH, extends to the heavens;

      Your faithfulness reaches to the clouds.

6    Your righteousness is like the mountains of God;

      Your judgments are a great deep.

      O YHWH, You preserve man and beast.

7    How precious is Your lovingkindness, O God!

      The children of men take refuge in the shadow of Your wings.

8    They are filled from the abundance of Your House,

      and You cause them to drink of the stream of Your delights.

9    For with You is the Fountain of Life;

      in Your light we see light.

10  Draw out Your lovingkindness to those who know You,

      and Your righteousness to the upright in heart.

11 Let not the foot of pride come against me,

      and let not the hand of the wicked drive me away.

12  There the evildoers have fallen;

      they have been thrown down and have been unable to rise.      r




Do Not Fret!  Trust in YHWH!

David uses a series of proverbial expressions to exhort the righteous

to trust in Yahweh who will cause them to inherit the land,

and not to fret about the wicked who will be cut off and destroyed.

A Psalm of David


1    Do not fret because of evildoers.

      Do not be envious of workers of unrighteousness,

2    for they will soon be cut down like the grass,

      and like tender green plants will fade away.

3    Trust in YHWH, and do good!

      Dwell in the land and cultivate faithfulness.

4    Delight yourself in YHWH; and He will give you

      the desires and petitions of your heart.

5    Commit your way to YHWH!

      Trust also in Him, and He will do it.

6    He will bring forth your righteousness as the light,

      and your justice and right as the midday sun.

7    Rest in YHWH, and wait patiently for Him.

      Do not fret because of him who prospers in his way,

      or because of a man who carries out wicked schemes.

8    Refrain from anger, and turn from wrath.

      Do not fret - it tends only to do evil and harm.

9    For evildoers will be cut off,

      but those who wait on YHWH - they will possess the earth.

10  For just a little while and the wicked man will be no more;

      and you will look for his place, and it will not be there.

11  But the humble will possess the earth,

      and delight themselves in the abundance of peace.

12  The wicked plots against the righteous,

      and gnashes his teeth at him.

13  YHWH laughs at him, for He sees that his day is coming.

14  The wicked have drawn the sword and bent their bow,

      to cause the poor and needy to fall,

      to slay those whose ways are upright.

15  Their sword will pierce their own heart,

      and their bows will be broken.

16  Better is the little of the righteous one

      than the abundance of many wicked.

17  For the arms of the wicked will be broken,

      but YHWH sustains the righteous.

18  YHWH knows the days of the perfect - the upright and blameless;

      and their inheritance is forever.

19  They are not ashamed in the time of evil;

      and in the days of famine they are satisfied.

20  But the wicked will perish; and the enemies of YHWH,

      like the fat of lambs in sacrifices, will be consumed;

      in smoke they are consumed.

      (Alternative translation: Like the beauty of the pastures,

      they will vanish - like smoke they vanish away.)

21  The wicked borrows and does not pay back.

      But the righteous is gracious and gives,

22  for those blessed by Him - YHWH - will inherit the earth;

      but those cursed by Him will be cut off.

23  The steps of a man are established by YHWH;

      and He delights in his way.

24  When he falls, he shall not be thrown down,

      because YHWH holds his hand.

25 I have been young, and now I am old;

      yet I have not see the righteous forsaken,

      or his children begging bread.

26  All day long he is gracious and lends;

      and his children are a blessing.

27  Turn away from evil, and do good,

      and dwell forever.

28  For YHWH loves justice,

      and does not forsake His devout, godly ones.

      They are kept and protected forever.

      But the offspring of the wicked will be cut off.

29  The righteous will possess the land,

      and dwell in it forever.

30  The mouth of the righteous speaks wisdom,

      and his tongue talks of justice.

31  The Torah teaching of his God is in his heart;

      his steps do not slip.

32  The wicked watches and lies in wait for the righteous,

      and seeks to kill him.

33  YHWH will not leave him in his hand,

      or let him be condemned when he is judged.

34  Wait expectantly on YHWH, and keep His way,

      and He will exalt you to possess the land.

      When the wicked are cut off, you will see it.

35  I have seen the wicked,

      ruthless and spreading himself like a native green tree.

36  Yet he passed away, and suddenly he was no more;

      When I sought him, he could not be found.

37  Observe the blameless man, and also see the upright;

      for the final result for both is peace.

38  But the transgressors will be destroyed together;

      the final result of the wicked will be, to be cut off.

39  But the salvation of the righteous is from YHWH -

      their strength in time of trouble.

40  And YHWH helps them, and delivers them.

      He delivers them from the wicked, and saves them,

      because they trust and take refuge in Himr]




Burdened by Sin and Oppression

David describes the suffering of sin, the loneliness of sin, and the confession of sin.

He focuses on God’s chastening as the cause of his distress.

A Psalm of David, to bring to remembrance.


1    O YHWH, rebuke me not in Your wrath;

      nor chasten me in Your burning anger.

2    For Your arrows have pierced me,

      and Your hand has come down heavily on me.

3    There is no soundness in my flesh

      because of Your indignation - Your anger;

      there is no peace, no soundness in my bones

      because of my sin.

4    For my iniquities have gone over my head -

      my guilt has overwhelmed me,

      as a heavy burden, too heavy for me.

5    Stinking - my wounds are festering,

      because of my folly.

6    I am bent over and greatly bowed down;

      I have gone mourning all day long.

7    For my loins are filled with burning;

      and there is no soundness in my flesh.

8    I have become weak and severely crushed;

      I groan because of anguish of heart.

9    Adonai, all my desire is before You;

      and my sighing has not been hidden from You.

10  My heart throbs, my strength has forsaken me;

      and even the light of my eyes is no longer with me.

11  My loved ones and my friends stand aloof from my plague;

      and my neighbours stand afar off.

12  Those who seeking my life lay snares for me.

      Those seeking to bring evil on me have spoken craftily,

      and they devise deception and treachery all day long.

13  But I, as one deaf, do not hear;

      and I am as a dumb man who does not open his mouth.

14  Yes, I am like a man who does not hear,

      and in whose mouth are no arguments or replies.

15  I have waited on You, O YHWH;

      because You answer, O YHWH my God,

16  when I pray. Let them not gloat over me

      and exalt themselves over me when my foot slips.

17  For I am ready to fall,

      and my pain and agony is always with me.

18  For I confess my iniquity;

      I am sorry and grieved because of my sin.

19  But my enemies are vigorous and they have become strong;

      and those who hate me wrongfully have multiplied.

20  And those who repay evil for good,

      accuse and oppose me, because I follow what is good.

21  Do not forsake me, O YHWH;

      O my God, do not be far from me!

22  Come quickly to help me,

      O YHWH, my salvation!   r




 Life is Vanity and Transient

David asks God to help him understand the brevity of life,

and to give him relief from chastening in view of its shortness.

To the Chief Musician, to Jeduthun.

A Psalm of David


1    I said: 'I will guard my ways,

      that I may not sin with my tongue.

      I will put a muzzle on my mouth,

      while the wicked are in my presence.'

2    I was dumb and silent,

      I refrained even from speaking good;

      and my anguish increased.

3    My heart was hot within me;

      while I was meditating, the fire burned.

      Then I spoke with my tongue;

4    ' YHWH, make me to know my end,

      and what is the extent of my days.

      Let me know how frail and transient I am.

5    Look, You have made my days as handbreadths,

      and my lifespan is as nothing before You.

      Every man standing is only vanity - a mere vapor.  Selah.

6    Every man walks about as a phantom - only a shadow;

      they are stirred up for nothing - only for vanity.

      He amasses goods and wealth, and does not know who will gather them.

7    And now what do I look for? What can I expect?
      O YHWH, my hope and expectation is in You.

8    Deliver me from all my transgressions;

      Do not make me the laughing stock of the foolish.

9    I have become dumb, I do not open my mouth,

      because it is You who have done all this.

10  Take Your stroke away from me;

      because of the opposition of Your hand, I am perishing.

11  When You reprove and chasten a man for his sin and iniquity,

      You consume what is precious to him, like a moth.

      Every man is vanity - only a mere breath.    Selah.

12  Hear my prayer, O YHWH, and listen to my cry for help.

      Do not be silent at my tears;

      for I am a sojourner with You,

      a temporary dweller like all my fathers.

13  Turn Your gaze away from me, that I may brighten up,

      before I depart and am no more.'   r




YHWH is Magnified. He is my Deliverer

David praises Yahweh for past deliverance, and proclaims his delight in the will of God.

And he places new problems before the LORD, his Help and Deliverer.

A Psalm of David


1    I waited intently for YHWH,

      and He inclined to me, and heard my cry.

2    He brought me up out of the pit of destruction,

      out of the mud and mire, 

      and He has set my feet upon a rock.

      He has established my footsteps.

3    He has put a new song in my mouth,

      a song of praise to our God.

      Many see it and stand in awe, and trust in YHWH.

4    How blessed is the man who has made YHWH his trust,

      and has not turned to the proud

      and to those who are following falsehood.

5    O YHWH my God, many are the wonders which You have done,

      and Your thoughts and purposes toward us

      - there is no one to compare with You! -

      I maintain and declare: they are more than can be counted.


6    ^Sacrifice and offering You have not desired;

      My ears You have opened;

      Burnt offerings and sin offerings You did not ask for.

7    Then I said, "See, here I am! I have come -

      In the scroll of the book it is written of Me;

8    I delight to do Your will, O My God;

      Your Torah is within My heart. ^       [Hebrews 10:5-7]


9    I have proclaimed news of righteousness in the great assembly;

      See, I do not restrain my lips; O YHWH, You know.

10  I have not concealed Your righteousness within my heart;

      I have declared Your faithfulness and Your salvation;

      I have not concealed Your lovingkindness and Your truth from the great assembly.

11  O YHWH, do not withhold Your compassion from me;

      Let Your lovingkindness and Your truth continually preserve me;

12  For evils without number have surrounded me;

      my iniquities have overtaken me, and I have been unable to see.

      They have been more numerous than the hairs of my head,

      and my heart has failed me.

13  Be pleased, O YHWH, to deliver me;

      O YHWH, hasten to help me!

14  Let those who seek to destroy my life be ashamed and brought to confusion together.

      Let those who wish me evil be driven back and dishonoured.

15  Let those who say to me, 'Aha, aha!' be appalled because of their own shame.

16  All who seek You rejoice and are glad in You;

      Those who love Your salvation say continually,

      YHWH is magnified!

17  I am afflicted and needy,

      yet YHWH Adonai is mindful of me.

      You are my Help and my Deliverer;

      O my Elohim, do not delay!   r





YHWH Protects from Enemies and False Friends

This psalm begins with a beatitude – a blessing, similar to Matthew 5:7, “Blessed are the merciful.” This is in contrast to the schemes of David’s enemies and ‘close friend.’ 

But Yahweh has been gracious and sets David in His Presence forever.

For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David


1    How blessed is he who regards the poor and helpless.

      YHWH delivers him in a day of trouble.

2    YHWH protects him and preserves his life,

      He is blessed and happy on the earth;

      and You do not hand him over to the desire of his enemies.

3    YHWH sustains him on his sickbed;

      You lift him up from his bed of weakness.

4    As for me, I said, ' O YHWH, be gracious to me;

      heal my soul, for I have sinned against You.'

5    My enemies speak evil against me,

      'When he dies his name will perish?'

6    And if he comes to see me, he speaks empty and vain words;

      his heart gathers wickedness to itself.

      Then he goes out and tells it in the street.

7    All who hate me whisper together against me;

      they plot evil against me, saying,

8    'A vile disease of Belial has come upon him,

      that now that he lies down, he will not rise up again.'

9    Even my friend and ally, in whom I trusted,

      who ate my bread, has lifted up his heel against me.

10  But You, O YHWH, be gracious to me, and raise me up,

      that I may repay them.

11  By this I know that You delight in me,

      because my enemy does not shout in triumph over me.

12  As for me, You uphold me in my integrity,

      and You set me in Your Presence forever.

13  Blessed be YHWH, the Elohim of Israel,

      from everlasting to everlasting.

      Amen, and Amen.   r









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